Entomolgy Sub Sector

The sub-sector undertakes trypanosomiasis vector control, vermin control, and apiculture and sericulture promotion. The dominant tsetse species is Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and other vectors are nuisance-biting flies (tabanids, haemtopota, crysops and stomoxy). The distribution of the vectors is wide and covers the whole district with varying densities; highly infested areas include river Moroto and tributaries (in parts of Erute North) and other areas with dense vegetations. Increased dense vegetation and the Okole complex, and other small swamps. The tsetse fly population is on high increase and are more peridomestic as a result of the low control activities.
The movements of cattle and human during insecurity have caused the spread of trypanosomiasis across boundaries. Animal trypanosomiasis as a constraint to livestock productivity in the district has been common. Human trypanosomiasis was confirmed in Aloi Subcounty and with the current high fly denities in the district, trypanosomiasis remains a big threat.
The district has high potential in honey production with over 1,500 bee farmers each managing five colonies on average. The practice is mainly traditional bee- keeping which is destructive to bees and the environment. Potential quality and quantity of honey and wax harvest are under utilised, hence additional financial value to farmers is lost. Insecurity has greatly affected honey production in the district, whereby many hives were destroyed either by fire or rebels. With improved security many farmers have embarked on honey production in all the sub-counties in the district. Organisations promoting beekeeping,include NARO, ADB AT(U) Sericulture has not picked up well in the district though mulberry (silk worm food) grows very well in most parts of the district.
The modern bee keeping technology introduced in the district in 1997 which was to improve on apiary management to address the quality and quantity problems picked up well but the operations of the LRA rebel caused decline to the bee keeping industry. Farmers abandoned their apiary as they flee for safety. The rebels destroyed many beehives as they robe the bees of the honey. Considering the important roles of bees to human and the environment, it’s a necessity to support this industry in order to improve on apiary management to address the quantity and quality problems.

Gender
Both women and men participate in entomological activities (vector control and bee-keeping). Men take greater active part in most of the activities.
In bee keeping most activities are carried out by men. Women come in during harvest and processing, but have very little to say at marketing and making decision on the utilisation of funds accruing from sales of bees products. It is important that women are encouraged to participate in all those activities, and especially more in the decision making.

Environment
About 50 percent of bee-keepers in the district practise traditional bee-keeping. This is destructive to bees and the environment. In most areas which surrounded camps most trees were cut down for fuel wood thus depriving bees of their habitat and food The modern bee keeping introduced in the district is sustainable, enhances good environmental conservation, increase household income, and adoptable by any body (women, Persons With Disabilities, PWA youth, Persons With Disabilities, PWA and even people with some disability).
Bees are generally efficient insect pollinators, have a vital role in increasing food production and overall agricultural productivity.
Bee flourish wherever there is sufficient pollen and nectar, trees are great sources. Bee-keepers have good reasons for conserving trees and they have ready market for honey and bees wax.

Energy
There is an alarming rate of the destruction of trees for mainly fuel wood. There is therefore need to advocate and promote alternative source of fuel rather than the Natural trees which is being depleted. Beekeeping is a good reason for the conservation of trees and environment; trees are great sources of bees forage. The sector will promote the planting of multipurpose trees for supporting beekeeping and use as fuel wood.

HIV/AIDS
HIV/AIDS infected and affected persons tend to shy away from productive activities especially in those activities which bring the community together in form of group activities, planning meetings, training, workshops. However, through NAADS/paf initiatives PHAs are coming up with their farming groups. This group would need specific strategies to address their agric production needs.
Bee keeping is a good source of health food and income that can be taken up by HIV/AIDS infected and affected families as it requires little investment cost, time and energy. It pays with simple management practices.

Vulnerability (OVC): The long war in the north and HIV/AIDS created a number of orphans and vulnerable children most of whom are taken care of by relatives who are not capable to cater for their needs adequately Many of this children take up responsibilities which are beyond their capabilities viz. heading a family and looking after younger brothers and sisters. These burdens overwhelm them, and can only be supported through a sustainable way of livelihood. Beekeeping is an enterprise that can help them generate income to support them.

Peace Recovery and development Programme
(PRDP)
The insecurity which prevailed in the district deprived the local communities of sources of livelihood among other things. While in the camps and on return home their level of productivity remained very low and were mainly surviving on handouts. This is meant to temporally support them as they re-settle. As part of recovery and development the local community need to be supported to diversify their sources of livelihood. Beekeeping is an enterprise which should be promoted as an income generating activity to the local communities.

Health
Tsetse is increasingly a big problem to both human and Animals in the district. Tsetse is widely spread and the level of infestation is high as a result of the increased dense vegetation following the insecurity. Animal trypanosomiasis (Nagana) is widely spread in the district where as cases of human trypanosomiasis were confirmed and treated in Aloi sub-county, the spread to other areas is a threat since the vector appear in high density in many areas. On the other hand the control activities are limited. It is therefore necessary to bush up tsetse control through community participation in the control activities.

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