Environment and natural resources management is a decentralized role of Local Government under the Local Government Act. In Lira Municipal, this has been fully operationalised by creation of Natural resources Department that has the sections of Land, Environment, Forestry and Wetlands
Prevalent Pollution by types
The major type of pollution in the district includes;
Water pollution: water pollution is quite common in the district and most of the unprotected community water sources are polluted. The pollutants are from storm waters which run down the valleys when it rains. The storm water usually carries pollutants that include agrochemicals, fiscal matters, oils and grease, silt, heavy metals amongst others. Other sources include waste material from the brewing of molasses that is done commonly along the wetlands in the district
Noise pollution: This type of pollution is very common in Lira Municipality attributed to poor planning of industrial settings, a number of discotheques located in the residential settings, advertising of products by companies using loud speakers. A number of Pentecostal churches in the municipality some of which carries out overnight prayer are becoming a major source of noise pollution to the neighborhoods. There is need for the authorities of LMC and the police to enforce the provision of the National Environment (Noise Control Regulations) to control the level of noise in the municipality.
Other type of pollution includes the air pollution which is not so prevalent since the district does not have any heavy industry
Lira Municipality currently has one landfill site at Aler waste composting site. It used to have a landfill site in railways division opposite Lira Modern primary school but the site has been closed due to the problem of proximity to the school and nearness to Town.
Storm water drainage channel
The length of storm water drainage channel in the municipality is being estimated at 5 kilometers. The channels have not yet been properly stoned pitched and sometimes when it rains heavily, there is flooding of the nearby environment and destruction of the road crossings. The channels are sometimes blocked by deposition on non biodegradable waste that interferes with the proper flow of the water. There is need to for the municipality to consider upgrading the channel to the status of the Nakivubo to allow for proper flow of the storm water into Okole wetland.
Abattoirs in Lira Municipal.
There is only one abattoir in the Municipality and this is located in Railways division in Lira Municipality. In the district countryside no abattoirs have been constructed and yet the districts have several big markets where animals are slaughtered and sold on every market days. This continues to make disposal of the remains of animal slaughter a big problem to the management of the markets
Factories in Lira Municipal.
The factories in the municipal include oil mills; some of the prominent oil mills includes A.K oil and fats, Mt. Meru oil mill, Gurunanak, O.N oil mill. The oil milling is a major activity in this Municipality because of the high production of sunflower, simsim and the natural endowment with the Shea butter tree (Vutelaria paradoxicum). The other factories include the maize and rice mills some of which also grinds maize, millet and sorghum. Lango sub region produces a lot of cereal crops that are milled and packaged for sale in other parts of the country.
There used to be a cotton spinning mill but it was vandalized by those who bought it from government and currently it is not in use. This could also explain why cotton production has dropped in the region.
A plastic recycling plant was installed in the Municipality but only operated for a short time because collecting the old plastic from the communities to provide raw material for the factory became difficult and hence the investor has since suspended the operation of the machine.
Management of effluent most especially from non point source remains a big challenge to the Municipality and this includes urban storm water that is always heavily polluted.
Solid waste management is however being done comprehensively by the Lira Municipal urban authorities. Recently World Bank supported Lira Municipality through the NEMA to improve upon its urban waste management
Factory treatment Facilities
There are only two factory treatment facilities in Lira Municipality. One is for an oil mill located at Odokomit and was constructed by the investor in response to the requirement for the Environmental agreement signed by the factory and NEMA.
The other treatment facility was constructed by UNDP through DETREC a local NGO for treatment of refuse from the brewing of the liquid molasses before it can be discharged into Okole wetland. This is a cleaner production method that ensures that the waste meets some environmental standard before it is disposed into the environment to reduce pollution.
Most of the existing factories however do not have any treatment facilities for their waste waters that are generated by the plant. This poses danger environmental degradation as the waste are directly discharges into the environment without any prior treatment.